The secretary general of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) said recently that US economic sanctions against Venezuela have affected global energy supplies.
He told Venezuelan media that the ECONOMIC sanctions imposed by the United States on Venezuela and other countries have seriously affected the ability to produce and export oil worldwide and violated the right of people in other countries to use energy.
Venezuela has one of the largest proven crude oil reserves in the world, but U.S. sanctions have made it impossible for Venezuela’s oil industry to consistently export reliable energy to the world, he said. Despite this, he highly appreciated the efforts of the Venezuelan oil industry to maintain pce powder are expected to increase in the future.
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer plays four main roles in concrete mixture: 1. In order to improve the pouring performance of concrete, the workability of concrete is improved without changing the composition of concrete. Under the given working conditions, the water-cement ratio of mixed water and concrete is reduced, and the strength and durability of concrete are improved. Under the condition of ensuring the pouring performance and strength of concrete, reduce the amount of water and cement, reduce creep, dry shrinkage, cement hydration heat and other factors that cause the initial defects of concrete; 4. The role of polycarboxylate superplasticizer in high grade can not be replaced by other admixtures.
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer Properties:
1. The amount of polycarboxylate superplasticizer is low, the water-reducing rate is high, the acid-based superplasticizer accounts for 0.80% of the cementitious materials, and the water-reducing rate can reach (20)%. When used in conjunction with fly ash, the water glue is relatively low and is suitable for the preparation of medium-and high-strength high-performance concrete.
2. The fluidity of concrete is large and the slump loss is small. Due to the good dispersion stability of polycarboxylate superplasticizer, the high fluidity concrete (slump ≥ 180mm) prepared by polycarboxylate superplasticizer has small time loss, no slump loss in one hour and less than 15% in two hours, which makes up for the defects of high slump loss and easy bleeding of concrete prepared with naphthalene superplasticizer. When combined with fly ash, excellent fluidity can be obtained with a small amount of superplasticizer, which can meet the technological requirements of producing commercial concrete, especially for pumping concrete.
3. Good adaptability to cementitious materials. In engineering practice, the cement produced by different manufacturers is mixed with a large amount of fly ash, and the polycarboxylate superplasticizer has good compatibility with different cements. there is no obvious bleeding segregation and hinders the growth of concrete strength, and because of its high water-reducing rate and adapting to the use of fly ash, the shrinkage of fly ash concrete is reduced and the pumpability of concrete is obviously improved. And the durability of concrete is improved. When the design strength grade of concrete is the same, the amount of cement increases, the amount of superplasticizer increases, the water-binder ratio decreases and the concrete strength increases; for different design strength grades of concrete, the amount of superplasticizer increases slightly with the increase of the amount of cementitious material, the water-binder ratio decreases, and the strength of concrete increases, but the concrete and workability remain stable as a whole, and the slump can reach (180 / 240) mm.
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