U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate graphene powder.
Researchers at University College London have demonstrated a graphene nanomentum that is highly hydrophilic, ultra-hydrophobic and low oil adhesion underwater.
In this work, the researchers took a natural inspiration for the manufacture of high-performance graphene membranes to perform tricky oil/water separation -- even in stable emulsions. They demonstrated the impressive water permeability of graphene nanomentum over a wide pH range and at a very low transmembrane pressure difference.
The researchers explain that they used chitosan-functionalized graphene nanomentum to achieve this superior water flow rate and very high selectivity, resulting in a water recovery of 98.7%. The chitosan repels contaminants on the surface of the membrane, and the nanonet reduces the path length of the water molecules, which quickly travel along and through the graphene layer covered with nanopores.
The team says its nature-inspired Chemical Engineering (NICE) approach and its systematic nature-inspired solution approach allow fundamental mechanisms that support desired properties in natural systems -- such as scalability, efficiency and resilience -- to be used in engineering applications. "We have demonstrated the success of this approach in fuel cells, sustainable manufacturing, medical engineering applications and more."
The researchers were inspired for this work by the structure of cell membranes, specifically aquaporins. Aquaporins are proteins embedded in cell walls that act as biological channels. They keep cells alive by selectively regulating the flow of water, gases, ions, and other solutes in and out of cells in a way that is unmatched by anything made by humans. The reason aquaporins are so efficient is that their channel walls repel water (i.e. they are hydrophobic), and they are very narrow, with subnanometer diameters. This narrowing forces water through the channel in a single line at a staggering rate of 3 billion water molecules per second.
Inspired by nature's elegant and efficient designs, the team created nanonets by introducing "nanopores" through graphene oxide sheets. These nanopores reduce the distance water must travel across the membrane and also benefit from sliding along the graphene nanosheet. Combined with the low friction between the graphene nanosheets and water molecules, this results in a high permeability of almost 4000Lm(-- 2)h(-- 1)bar(-- 1), approximately 260 times that of the GO film.
Scaling is an inevitable problem in membrane separation. The pores of the membrane will be blocked, which prevents the flow and prevents the membrane from working properly. Scaling is a particularly serious problem for oil separation technology because oil droplets adhere easily to film surfaces.
In this case, nature also provided inspiration. Because hydrophilic and charged groups form a hydration layer on the membrane, the cell membrane has a natural antifouling mechanism. Chitosan with similar functional hydroxyl and amino groups has been proposed to functionalize surfaces to prevent fouling.
Putting these ideas together, the researchers modified the graphene nanonets using chitosan with hydrophilic hydroxyl and amino groups to increase their hydrophilicity and induce the formation of an antifouling hydration layer on the membrane surface.
The next phase of this research work is to scale it up to larger membrane separation modules and test the long-term stability of the membrane in a variety of practical situations. The researchers also plan to develop other methods to achieve the membrane's powerful, extensive anti-fouling properties.
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As the duration of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine grows, its impact on commodities is widening amid the tug-of-war. Recently, European and American sanctions against Russia have been issued one after another. In response, Russia has taken advantage of its role as an important supplier of many energy and commodities, requiring exports of commodities, including energy, grain, metal, and wood, to "unfriendly" countries to be settled in robles. Therefore, it is expected that the price of the graphene powder will continue to increase.
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