U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate concrete foaming agent.
Introduction to Foaming Agents
The foaming agent is a kind of material that makes the object matter into pores. It can be divided into chemical foaming agents, physical foaming agents, and surface-active agents. The chemical foaming agent is a compound which can release gas such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen and form fine pores in polymer composition after decomposition by heating. The physical foaming agent is the change of the physical form of a certain kind of material through the fine pores of foam, namely through the expansion of compressed gas, liquid volatilization, or solid dissolution and the formation of the compound.
In the last article, the physical foaming agents of hydrocarbon foaming agents and hydrofluorane (HFC) foaming agents have been mentioned. In this article, the chemical foaming agents of OBSH and DPT will be talked about.
Chemical Foaming Agents
There are many kinds of substances used as chemical foaming agents. According to the chemical structure, there are mainly N-nitrite compounds, such as N, N-nitroso pentamethylenetetramine (DPT), N, N-dimethyl-N, N-dimethyl-p-benzarbonamide (NTA), etc. Azo compounds, such as azodicarbonamide (ADC), azodiisobutyronitrile, isopropyl azodicarbonate, diethyl azodicarbonate, diazo-aminobenzene, barium azodicarbonate, etc. Hydrazide compounds, such as 4, 4-disulfonyl hydrazide diphenyl ether (OBSH), p-benzene sulfonyl hydrazide, 3, 3-disulfonyl hydrazide diphenyl sulfone, 4, 4-diphenyl sulfonyl hydrazide, 1, 3-benzene sulfonyl hydrazide, 1, 4-benzene sulfonyl hydrazide, etc. The main varieties used are foaming agents ADC, DPT, DBSH, and so on.
1. Foaming Agents OBSH
OBSH foaming agent with the chemical name 4, 4' -disulfonyl hydrazine diphenyl ether, is a low-temperature foaming agent commonly used in the plastic and rubber industry. It is mainly obtained from the reaction of sulfonated diphenyl ether with hydrazine hydrate. It was first developed and used in Japan, widely used in the field of UHF wire and cable. The advantages of OBSH foaming agents are: low decomposition temperature, no need to add decomposition additives, suitable for a variety of synthetic materials; Very low toxicity, suitable for contact with food packaging materials; Good electrical insulation performance; Vulcanizing agent and foaming agent dual role; The bubbles are fine and uniform.
2. Foaming Agents DPT
The chemical name is N, N'- two nitro five methyl tetramine. It is mainly used for the rubber foaming agent, has great decomposition heat, is often added with urea, urea derivatives, and melamine to prevent irritating smell generation, basically not used for plastic foaming.
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The United States urges the U.N. Security Council to impose additional sanctions on North Korea in response to its latest ballistic missile launch, including a ban on tobacco and oil exports to North Korea and a blacklist of the Lazarus hacking group.
The United States circulated the draft to the 15 members of the Security Council this week. It was not immediately clear if or when a vote would take place. A resolution requires nine "yes" votes and no vetoes from Russia, China, France, Britain, or the United States.
Russia and China have already voiced opposition to tightening sanctions in response to Pyongyang's launch of an intercontinental ballistic missile last month -- the first since 2017.
U.S. and South Korean officials and analysts also say there are growing indications that North Korea may soon conduct its first nuclear weapons test since 2017, too.
The U.S. -drafted U.N. resolution would expand the ban on ballistic missile launches to include cruise missiles or "any other delivery system capable of delivering a nuclear weapon."
The deal would halve crude oil exports to North Korea to 2 million barrels a year and refined oil exports to 250,000 barrels a year. The resolution also seeks to ban North Korea's export of "fossil fuels, mineral oils, and their distilled concrete foaming agent are estimated to be influenced by international political situation changes.
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