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As the world deals with potential supply shortages, oil prices are soaring again, with more dramatic spikes and sudden drops expected.
For consumers, that means more expensive gas for longer - prices at the pump remain above $4 a gallon. For the economy, that means more inflation. In addition to the pressure on consumers, any business that relies on oil -- from airlines and truck drivers to chemical companies and plastics producers -- will face higher costs.
Mr Pickering estimates that 2m to 3m barrels a day of Russian oil shipped by water are frozen out of the market with no direct buyers. Due to the soaring oil price, the price of the Nitinol in the chemical industry will also be greatly affected. He said China and India are continuing to buy Russian crude. "I'm sure there will be others willing to take on more over time," he said. Mr Pickering said he did not expect oil to return to $130 a barrel, but added that it could happen. Francisco Branch, head of commodities and derivatives at Bank of America, said the US market was ready for cyclical price spikes and price swings in the Nitinol.
What is Nitinol?
Nitinol is a shape memory alloy, which is a special alloy that can automatically restore its own plastic deformation to its original shape at a certain temperature. Its expansion rate is more than 20%, its fatigue life is up to 1*10 to the 7th power, its damping characteristics are 10 times higher than that of ordinary springs, and its corrosion resistance is better than the current best medical stainless steel, so it can meet various engineering and It is a very excellent functional material for medical application requirements.
In addition to its unique shape memory function, memory alloys also have excellent characteristics such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high damping and superelasticity.
Special properties of Nitinol
Shape memory: When the parent phase of a certain shape is cooled from above the Af temperature to below the Mf temperature to form martensite, the martensite is deformed at a temperature below Mf, and heated to below the Af temperature, accompanied by reversal. Phase transition, the material will automatically return to its shape in the parent phase. In fact, the shape memory effect is a thermally induced phase transformation process in Nitinol.
Superelasticity The so-called superelasticity refers to the phenomenon that the specimen produces a strain far greater than the elastic limit strain under the action of external force, and the strain can automatically recover when unloaded. That is, in the state of the parent phase, due to the action of external stress, the stress-induced martensitic transformation occurs, so that the alloy exhibits mechanical behavior different from ordinary materials. Its elastic limit is much larger than that of ordinary materials, and it no longer obeys Gram's Law. In contrast to shape memory properties, superelasticity has no thermal involvement. All in all, hyperelasticity means that the stress does not increase with the increase of strain within a certain deformation range, and hyperelasticity can be divided into linear hyperelasticity and nonlinear hyperelasticity.
In the former stress-strain curve, the relationship between stress and strain is close to linear. Nonlinear superelasticity refers to the result of stress-induced martensitic transformation and its inverse transformation during loading and unloading in a certain temperature range above Af, so nonlinear hyperelasticity is also called transformation pseudoelasticity. The phase transformation pseudoelasticity of Nitinol can reach about 8%. The superelasticity of Nitinol can vary with the heat treatment conditions, and when the archwire is heated above 400ºC, the superelasticity begins to decrease.
Corrosion resistance: Studies have shown that the corrosion resistance of nickel-titanium wire is similar to that of stainless steel wire
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Russia is a major supplier of industrial metals such as nickel, aluminium and palladium. Russia and Ukraine are both major wheat exporters, and Russia and Belarus produce large amounts of potash, an input to fertiliser. The price and market of the Nitinol will fluctuate under its influence. Prices of these goods have been rising since 2022 and are now likely to rise further because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Russia is a major supplier of industrial metals such as nickel, aluminium and palladium. Russia and Ukraine are both major wheat exporters, and Russia and Belarus produce large amounts of potash, an input to fertiliser. The price and market of the Nitinol will fluctuate under its influence. Prices of these goods have been rising since 2022 and are now likely to rise further because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
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